The breakout board can be directly connected to an Arduino that has 3 volt signaling. For a 5 volt Arduino, you should have level shifters (or at least series resistors) between the VS23S010 and the Arduino. VS23S010 connected to a 5 volt Arduino may work for a while, but the chip will eventually fail.
In the picture below you can see the breakout board connected to the "top-left" digital 8-pin header of the Arduino Uno.
The pins should be connected as follows:
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Arduino UNO: - VS23S010 Breakout Board: AREF - D6 GND - GND 13 - SCLK 12 - D1/MISO ~11 - D0/MOSI ~10 - XCS ~9 - XRST 8 - RST/BWTDIO
Naturally the video-out of the breakout board should be connected to a display device, and Arduino should be connected to a PC with its USB-B port.
See the picture below for the correct orientation.
For programming the Arduino Uno the Arduino IDE is needed. Once installed, see the Arduino Software (IDE) page, specifically the "Uploading" chapter, to program your device. In short, open the provided sketch (.ino file), select the correct board and port from the "Tools" menu, and click "Upload". This Arduino sketch is for NTSC video timing, so you will need an NTSC crystal (3.57954 MHz) on the Breakout Board.
You may also open the Serial Monitor (again in the "Tools" menu). When the program is executed, the output should the following:
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Reading manufacturer ID, result: 0x2B00 ID ok, 1 VS23 IC(s) in system Linelen: 1810 PLL clks Picture line area is 320 x 200 Pixel 0,0 is at byte address 3863 Pixel 0,1 is at byte address 4183 Current line: 0xC6
Below is a picture of the generated test image. The colours aren't exactly right, but it should give an idea of how the result should look like. If you want the image to be a little darker, increase BLACK_LEVEL and BLANK_LEVEL in ntsc.h from 0x0066 to 0x0080 or even higher.
The Arduino sketch is available for download below.